Publications

Research into focused ultrasound has grown dramatically over the past 15 years, with the volume of publications more than quadrupling during that timeframe. We have compiled a curated selection of tFUS studies published to date, to serve as a convenient resource for researchers developing original protocols or referring to published results.

Research Outlook

Funding for FUS projects has increased steadily since 2004, both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of total spending. According to the Focused Ultrasound Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing FUS therapies, “Funding increases of this nature are typical for medical innovations that have shown the most potential for improving patient health.”5

There are more than 38 indications for tFUS—at least 25 are in preclinical research stages—and that number is increasing rapidly. In 2019 alone, researchers initiated first-in-human clinical trials for three neurological disorders—addiction, multiple sclerosis, and migraine.21  The field is rapidly advancing from basic research and translational protocols to pre-clinical studies and clinical trials.

The volume of FUS publications has increased dramatically over the past 15 years.

References

Publications on the safety of tFUS are marked with “**” and those that used Sonic Concepts, Inc. devices, including NeuroFUS are marked with “*”.

Offline impact of transcranial focused ultrasound on cortical activation in primates.
Verhagen L, Gallea C, Folloni D, Constans C, Jensen DE, Ahnine H, Roumazeilles L, Santin M, Ahmed B, Lehericy S, Klein-Flügge MC. Elife. 2019 Feb 12;8:e40541.*

Manipulation of subcortical and deep cortical activity in the primate brain using transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation.
Folloni D, Verhagen L, Mars RB, Fouragnan E, Constans C, Aubry JF, Rushworth MF, Sallet J. Neuron. 2019 Mar 20;101(6):1109-16.*

Activation and disruption of a neural mechanism for novel choice in monkeys.
Bongioanni A, Folloni D, Verhagen L, Sallet J, Klein-Flügge MC, Rushworth MF. Nature. 2021 Jan 6:1-5.*

A basal forebrain-cingulate circuit in macaques decides it is time to act.
Khalighinejad N, Bongioanni A, Verhagen L, Folloni D, Attali D, Aubry JF, Sallet J, Rushworth MF. Neuron. 2020 Jan 22;105(2):370-84.*

Systematic examination of low-intensity ultrasound parameters on human motor cortex excitability and behavior.
Fomenko A, Chen KH, Nankoo JF, Saravanamuttu J, Wang Y, El-Baba M, Xia X, Seerala SS, Hynynen K, Lozano AM, Chen R. Elife. 2020 Nov 25;9:e54497.*

Low-intensity focused ultrasound modulates monkey visuomotor behavior.
Deffieux T, Younan Y, Wattiez N, Tanter M, Pouget P, Aubry JF. Current Biology. 2013 Dec 2;23(23):2430-3.*

Transcranial ultrasonic stimulation modulates single-neuron discharge in macaques performing an antisaccade task.
Wattiez N, Constans C, Deffieux T, Daye PM, Tanter M, Aubry JF, Pouget P. Brain stimulation. 2017 Nov 1;10(6):1024-31.*

A retrospective qualitative report of symptoms and safety from transcranial focused ultrasound for neuromodulation in humans.
Legon W, Adams S, Bansal P, Patel PD, Hobbs L, Ai L, Mueller JK, Meekins G, Gillick BT. Scientific reports. 2020 Mar 27;10(1):1-10.**

Ultrasound neuromodulation: a review of results, mechanisms and safety.
Blackmore J, Shrivastava S, Sallet J, Butler CR, Cleveland RO. Ultrasound in medicine & biology. 2019 Jul 1;45(7):1509-36.**

Safety of transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation: A systematic review of the state of knowledge from both human and animal studies.
Pasquinelli C, Hanson LG, Siebner HR, Lee HJ, Thielscher. Brain stimulation. 2019 Nov 1;12(6):1367-80.**

Histologic safety of transcranial focused ultrasound neuromodulation and magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging in rhesus macaques and sheep.
Gaur P, Casey KM, Kubanek J, Li N, Mohammadjavadi M, Saenz Y, Glover GH, Bouley DM, Pauly KB. Brain stimulation. 2020 May 1;13(3):804-14.**

Combined Brain Perturbation and Neuroimaging in Non-human Primates.
Klink C, Aubry JF, Ferrera V, Fox AS, Froudist-Walsh S, Jarraya B, Konofagou E, Krauzlis R, Messinger A, Mitchell AS, Ortiz-Rios M. 2020 Sept 11. Web.

A double-blind pilot study of transcranial ultrasound (TUS) as a five-day intervention: TUS mitigates worry among depressed participants.
Reznik SJ, Sanguinetti JL, Tyler WJ, Daft C, Allen JJ. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research. 2020 Sep 1;37:60-6.

Neuromodulation Management of Chronic Neuropathic Pain in the Central Nervous System.
Yu K, Niu X, He B. Advanced Functional Materials. 2020 Sep;30(37):1908999.

Characterization of Ultrasound Neurostimulation in Mice.
Iazourene T, Malloul H, Oujagir E, Escoffre JM, Bouakaz A. In 2020 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) 2020 Sep 7 (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Neuronavigated Repetitive Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation induces long-lasting and reversible effects on oculomotor performance in non-human primates.
Pouget P, Frey S, Ahnine H, Attali D, Claron J, Constans C, Aubry JF, Arcizet F. Frontiers in Physiology. 2020 Aug;11.

An Investigation of the Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Ultrasound Neuromodulation [dissertation].”
Newhoff, M. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota; 2020.

Transcranial focused ultrasound generates skull-conducted shear waves: Computational model and implications for neuromodulation.
Salahshoor H, Shapiro MG, Ortiz M. Applied Physics Letters. 2020 Jul 20;117(3):033702.

Focused ultrasound neuromodulation and the confounds of intracellular electrophysiological investigation.
Collins MN, Mesce KA. Eneuro. 2020 Jul;7(4).

Remote, brain region–specific control of choice behavior with ultrasonic waves.
Kubanek J, Brown J, Ye P, Pauly KB, Moore T, Newsome W. Science advances. 2020 May 1;6(21):eaaz4193.

Image-guided focused ultrasound modulates electrically evoked motor neuronal activity in the mouse peripheral nervous system in vivo.
Kim MG, Kamimura HA, Lee SA, Aurup C, Kwon N, Konofagou EE. Journal of neural engineering. 2020 Apr 8;17(2):026026.

Transcranial focused ultrasound to the right prefrontal cortex improves mood and alters functional connectivity in humans.
Sanguinetti JL, Hameroff S, Smith EE, Sato T, Daft CM, Tyler WJ, Allen JJ. Frontiers in human neuroscience. 2020 Feb 28;14:52.

MRI monitoring of temperature and displacement for transcranial focus ultrasound applications.
Ozenne V, Constans C, Bour P, Santin MD, Valabrègue R, Ahnine H, Pouget P, Lehéricy S, Aubry JF, Quesson B. NeuroImage. 2020 Jan 1;204:116236.

Real-time imaging of brain displacement during FUS neuromodulation in rodents in vivo.
Kugelman T, Burgess MT, Konofagou E. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2019 Oct;146(4):2813-.

Simultaneous nerve displacement mapping for human peripheral neuromodulation.
Lee SA, Kamimura HA, Konofagou EE. In2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) 2019 Oct 6 (pp. 2155-2157). IEEE.

Manipulation of subcortical and deep cortical activity in the primate brain using transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation.
Folloni D, Verhagen L, Mars RB, Fouragnan E, Constans C, Aubry JF, Rushworth MF, Sallet J. Neuron. 2019 Mar 20;101(6):1109-16.

Effect Of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound On Epileptiform Discharges In A Penicillin-induced Epilepsy Model In Non-human Primates.
Zou J, Guo Y, Niu L, Meng L, Pang N, Zheng H. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation. 2019 Mar 1;12(2):443.

Inter-individual variability in cortical plasticity assessment in healthy subjects by application of Theta burst stimulation on primary motor cortex.
Hamza A, Bashir S. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation. 2019 Mar 1;12(2):443-4.

Noninvasive sub-organ ultrasound stimulation for targeted neuromodulation.
Cotero V, Fan Y, Tsaava T, Kressel AM, Hancu I, Fitzgerald P, Wallace K, Kaanumalle S, Graf J, Rigby W, Kao TJ. Nature communications. 2019 Mar 12;10(1):1-2.

Offline impact of transcranial focused ultrasound on cortical activation in primates.
Verhagen L, Gallea C, Folloni D, Constans C, Jensen DE, Ahnine H, Roumazeilles L, Santin M, Ahmed B, Lehericy S, Klein-Flügge MC. Elife. 2019 Feb 12;8:e40541.

Long-term in vivo performance of novel ultrasound powered implantable devices.
Kang C, Chang TC, Vo J, Charthad J, Weber M, Arbabian A, Vasudevan S. In2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 2018 Jul 18 (pp. 2985-2988). IEEE.

Transcranial focused ultrasound neuromodulation of the human primary motor cortex.
Legon W, Bansal P, Tyshynsky R, Ai L, Mueller JK. Scientific reports. 2018 Jul 3;8(1):1-14.

Ultrasound produces extensive brain activation via a cochlear pathway.
Guo H, Hamilton II M, Offutt SJ, Gloeckner CD, Li T, Kim Y, Legon W, Alford JK, Lim HH. Neuron. 2018 Jun 6;98(5):1020-30.

Neuromodulation of sensory networks in monkey brain by focused ultrasound with MRI guidance and detection.
Yang PF, Phipps MA, Newton AT, Chaplin V, Gore JC, Caskey CF, Chen LM. Scientific reports. 2018 May 22;8(1):1-9.

Focused ultrasound–mediated noninvasive blood-brain barrier modulation: preclinical examination of efficacy and safety in various sonication parameters.
Shin J, Kong C, Cho JS, Lee J, Koh CS, Yoon MS, Na YC, Chang WS, Chang JW. Neurosurgical focus. 2018 Feb 1;44(2):E15.

Transcranial ultrasonic stimulation modulates single-neuron discharge in macaques performing an antisaccade task.
Wattiez N, Constans C, Deffieux T, Daye PM, Tanter M, Aubry JF, Pouget P. Brain stimulation. 2017 Nov 1;10(6):1024-31.

Non-invasive transmission of sensorimotor information in humans using an EEG/focused ultrasound brain-to-brain interface.
Lee W, Kim S, Kim B, Lee C, Chung YA, Kim L, Yoo SS. PloS one. 2017 Jun 9;12(6):e0178476.

Noninvasive neuromodulation and thalamic mapping with low-intensity focused ultrasound.
Dallapiazza RF, Timbie KF, Holmberg S, Gatesman J, Lopes MB, Price RJ, Miller GW, Elias WJ. Journal of neurosurgery. 2017 Apr 21;128(3):875-84.

A 200–1380-kHz quadrifrequency focused ultrasound transducer for neurostimulation in rodents and primates: transcranial in vitro calibration and numerical study of the influence of skull cavity.
Constans C, Deffieux T, Pouget P, Tanter M, Aubry JF. IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control. 2017 Jan 11;64(4):717-24.

Toward deep brain monitoring with superficial EEG sensors plus neuromodulatory focused ultrasound.
Darvas F, Mehić E, Caler CJ, Ojemann JG, Mourad PD. Ultrasound in medicine & biology. 2016 Aug 1;42(8):1834-47.

Ultrasound treatment of neurological diseases—current and emerging applications.
Leinenga G, Langton C, Nisbet R, Götz J. Nature Reviews Neurology. 2016 Mar;12(3):161.

Long-term safety of repeated blood-brain barrier opening via focused ultrasound with microbubbles in non-human primates performing a cognitive task.
Downs ME, Buch A, Sierra C, Karakatsani ME, Chen S, Konofagou EE, Ferrera VP. PloS one. 2015 May 6;10(5):e0125911.

Image-guided transcranial focused ultrasound stimulates human primary somatosensory cortex.
Lee W, Kim H, Jung Y, Song IU, Chung YA, Yoo SS. Scientific reports. 2015 Mar 4;5(1):1-10.

Transcranial focused ultrasound modulates intrinsic and evoked EEG dynamics.
Mueller J, Legon W, Opitz A, Sato TF, Tyler WJ. Brain stimulation. 2014 Nov 1;7(6):900-8.

Transcranial focused ultrasound modulates the activity of primary somatosensory cortex in humans.
Legon W, Sato TF, Opitz A, Mueller J, Barbour A, Williams A, Tyler WJ. Nature neuroscience. 2014 Feb;17(2):322-9.

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