Footnotes

1 Ultrasound neuromodulation: a review of results, mechanisms and safety.
Blackmore J, Shrivastava S, Sallet J, Butler CR, Cleveland RO. Ultrasound in medicine & biology. 2019 Jul 1;45(7):1509-36.

2 Histologic safety of transcranial focused ultrasound neuromodulation and magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging in rhesus macaques and sheep.
Gaur P, Casey KM, Kubanek J, Li N, Mohammadjavadi M, Saenz Y, Glover GH, Bouley DM, Pauly KB. Brain stimulation. 2020 May 1;13(3):804-14.

3 A retrospective qualitative report of symptoms and safety from transcranial focused ultrasound for neuromodulation in humans.
Legon W, Adams S, Bansal P, Patel PD, Hobbs L, Ai L, Mueller JK, Meekins G, Gillick BT. Scientific reports. 2020 Mar 27;10(1):1-0.

4 Safety of transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation: A systematic review of the state of knowledge from both human and animal studies.
Pasquinelli C, Hanson LG, Siebner HR, Lee HJ, Thielscher A. Brain stimulation. 2019 Nov 1;12(6):1367-80.

5 About Neuromodulation [Internet].
International Neuromodulation Society. 2020 [cited April 8, 2021].

6 Epilepsy Fact Sheet [Internet].
World Health Organization. 2019 [cited April 8, 2021].

7 Migraine Facts [Internet].
Migraine Research Foundation. 2021 [cited April 8, 2021].

8 Chronic pain: a review of its epidemiology and associated factors in population-based studies.
British journal of anaesthesia. Mills SE, Nicolson KP, Smith BH. 2019 Aug 1;123(2):e273-83.

9 Global, regional, and national burden of Parkinson’s disease, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.
Dorsey ER, Elbaz A, Nichols E, Abd-Allah F, Abdelalim A, Adsuar JC, Ansha MG, Brayne C, Choi JY, Collado-Mateo D, Dahodwala N. The Lancet Neurology. 2018 Nov 1;17(11):939-53.

10 Depression Fact Sheet [Internet].
World Health Organization. 2020 [cited April 8, 2021].

11 Stroke Statistics [Internet].
The Internet Stroke Center. [cited April 8, 2021].

12 Neuromodulation for movement disorders.
Dallapiazza R, McKisic MS, Shah B, Elias WJ. Neurosurgery Clinics. 2014 Jan 1;25(1):47-58.

13 Transcranial Electrical Stimulation and Transcrianial Direct Current Stimulation “Dosage.
Unal G, Bikson M. In: Krames ES, Peckham PH, Rezai AR, eds., Neuromodulation: Comprehensive Textbook of Principles, Technologies, and Therapies. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press; 2018. p. 1589-1610. Available from:

14 A brief history of brain stimulation in treating mental health problems [Internet].
Bell J. NS Medical Devices. July 26, 2020 [cited April 8, 2021].

15 Neuromodulation Workshop.
Focused Ultrasound Foundation. Charlottesville, VA: The Focused Ultrasound Foundation; 2014.

16 Neuromodulation with single‐element transcranial focused ultrasound in human thalamus.
Legon W, Ai L, Bansal P, Mueller JK. Human brain mapping. 2018 May;39(5):1995-2006.

17 Ultrasonic modulation of neural circuit activity.
Tyler, W. J., Lani, S. W., & Hwang, G. M. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 50, 222-231. 2018.

18Transcranial focused ultrasound modulates the activity of primary somatosensory cortex in humans.
Wynn Legon, Tomokazu F Sato, Alexander Opitz, et al. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Feb;17(2):322-9

19 Neuromodulation with single‐element transcranial focused ultrasound in human thalamus.
Legon, W., Ai, L., Bansal, P., & Mueller, J. K. Human Brain Mapping, 39, 1995-2006. 2018.

20 Compatible neuroscience techniques include: optical imaging (including fNIRS), EEG, AR/VR immersion or stimulation, peripheral nerve stimulation including VNS, and other neuromodulation methods, including tES, tDCS, tACS, and TMS.

21 State of the Field Report.
Focused Ultrasound Foundation. Charlottesville, VA: Focused Ultrasound Foundation; 2020.

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